What is the formula of cholesterol? From which it is formed?
In the blood, there are four main groups of lipids:
cholesterol and its esters
non-esterified fatty acids.
Cholesterol is a steroid group (such as sex hormones and bile acids), because it contains in its composition cyclic structures.
Cholesterol ester = cholesterol + fatty acid.
Triglycerides – this is what is commonly in use is called fat. Triglycerides = glycerol + 3 fatty acids.
Glycerin – is a polyol, a well-known women as an integral part of many cosmetics.
Fatty acid – an organic acid, which is a part of fat, it often has a large hydrocarbon tail (if he acetic acid is 1 carbon atom, in their 15 palmitic and stearic have as much as 17).
Phospholipids – are complex lipids consisting of glycerine, fatty acids, phosphoric acid, and a nitrogen-containing compound. They are part of the cell membranes of animals, plants and microorganisms.
If the fatty acid is not part of the fat, then it is called unesterified.
Cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids form complexes with proteins – lipoproteins.
Function of cholesterol:
part of the cell membrane
regulates its permeability
regulates the activity of membrane enzymes
is a precursor of some biologically active substances
Sources of cholesterol:
food (eggs, butter, etc.)
Synthesis of atsetilKoA in the liver and intestine (in the body).
Removal of excess cholesterol is by HDL. They carry cholesterol to the liver, then it turns into bile acids, which are excreted in the bile into the intestine.
Cholesterol – is not only atherosclerosis! No single cell in your body can not do without it, because it is part of their membranes. The problem with most people today is that they eat too many foods that contain cholesterol, so the body does not have time to get rid of its excess.
High cholesterol in the blood serum does not necessarily lead to atherosclerosis. For the development of the latter is necessary, so that the inner wall of the artery was damaged, and it is promoted by stress, high blood pressure (hypertension). In addition, the likelihood of “grow” in their vessels plaques depends on how much of our serum contains high-density lipoprotein (negative risk factor). Than their smaller, the greater the risk.
Dangerous not so much cholesterol, how the combination of its high concentration in the blood serum with low HDL-C and the inner walls of blood vessels, so it is better to play it safe and have normal cholesterol levels.
Normal levels of serum cholesterol: newborn 1.3 – 2.6 mmol / L
1 year 1.82 – 4.94 mmol / L
2 years – 14 years 3.74 – 5.2 mmol / L
adults 3.9 – 5.2 mmol / l
When the level of cholesterol in the blood …
with familial hypercholesterolemia (an inherited disease that is manifested by increased levels of cholesterol in the blood, and consequently the early development of atherosclerosis). slight hypercholesterolemia 5.2 – 6.5 mmol / l
moderate hypercholesterolemia 6.7 – 7.8 mmol / l
severe hypercholesterolemia more than 7.8 mmol / L
When the level of cholesterol in the blood decreases …
in cachexia (wasting)
in acute pancreatitis.
If hyperthyroidism develops in old age, the levels of cholesterol may be normal or even elevated.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL, a-lipoproteins).
Function of high density lipoproteins:
High-density lipoproteins carry fatty acids, cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides. In comparison to other forms of transport (chylomicrons, LDL and very low density), they contain a lot of protein and therefore more durable. Getting into the vessel wall, they are not only not “collapse” to the release of cholesterol, but rather “capture” him and carried into the liver.
Normal levels of high-density lipoproteins in the blood serum: newborn 0.7 – 1.8 g / l
1 year 0.8 -2.8 g / l
adolescents and adults 1.5 – 3.3 g / l
When the level of high density lipoproteins in the blood …
When the level of high density lipoproteins in the blood goes down …
with obstructive jaundice and other liver diseases
have people on parenteral nutrition (in / in a nutrient – glucose, fat emulsions, protein preparations).
On it you can indirectly judge the level of high-density lipoprotein: the coefficient of less is more in the blood of high density lipoproteins. 20 – 30 years 2.5
40 – 60 years
(No atherosclerosis) 3.0 – 3.5
in people with coronary heart disease over 4.0