Vaccinations for and against
Vaccinations are free from diseases such as smallpox, cholera, typhoid fever, plague, and from many others. Outbreaks took the lives of most people. Vymerala, most, half of the population.
In the Middle Ages, doctors began to think, how to prevent such outbreaks. In the 12th century to prevent smallpox in China used the wound, a discharge from cows suffering from smallpox, which is not dangerous to humans. Edward Jenner in 1796, was first planted cowpox to man, hence the term vaccination turned that from the Latin «vacca» cow. But already since 1798 in Europe is conducted mass vaccination against smallpox. However, the scientific basis for immunization are formed only after a hundred years, thanks to the work of Louis Pasteur.
What is vaccination? To answer this question, we must be aware of the work of our immune system. Let’s try to briefly describe how the immune system.
The immune system is our body guard, which protects it from foreign biological substances. Recognizing foreign materials, it eliminates it, while “remembering” your answer, so that you use it in combat like a virus. In the absence of the immune system, we would all be easy prey for viruses, fungi, bacteria and worms. Slight skvoznyachok impact would be difficult, infectious disease deaths. And occurs in people with immune deficiencies are poorly functioning immune system. And it does not matter innate or acquired (eg HIV) – the effect is the same.
One of the main problems of immunity, as already mentioned – the recognition of the “native” and “foreign” biological substance. With native biological substance meets the immune system in the womb, the knowledge of “foreignness” inherits, as well as many other genetic quality. In this case it is called hereditary or innate immunity. But – the same with the “foreign” biological substance immunity must meet more often in direct contact with it. It will be called acquired immunity, it is not as resistant as congenital and not hereditary. Acquired immunity is divided into two kinds, the active and passive. To acquire active immunity, a person must have had the disease or the vaccination (vaccination).
The principle of the vaccine is that the body is a separate entry of pathogens or infectious agent, it can be proteins or polysaccharides. Can also be used whole dead or weak alive disease agents or vaccines produced by genetic engineering. Thus, the body itself produces the necessary antibodies are available to quickly overcome the infection. Active immunity can be operated by a year or more, for example, vaccination against influenza has 1 – 2 years, decades, measles, chicken pox for life.
Passive immunity occurs when injected into the body ready-made antibodies of another person or animal. Ways to acquire passive immunity are both naturally, on the basis of the embryo receiving maternal antibodies through the placenta. Also artificially by injection of antibodies, acquired from human serum or had suffered the disease again obtained, by genetic engineering.
The vaccination can have side effects, the most common of which is an allergic reaction. It manifests itself on the skin in the form of redness at the injection site, is also possible itching, peeling skin. It may also be a more serious reaction as fever, shivering, rapid drop in blood pressure. For fear of side effects, many are from vaccination. But now a vaccine that includes microorganisms themselves, changed the drugs, which contain the components of microorganisms. This is a more gentle version of the vaccine, he practically does not cause adverse reactions. Also does not cause the disease in immunocompromised people. This type of vaccine, a completely new stage in the development of vaccines.
But in spite of the continuous improvement of methods of vaccination, many people still do not want to be vaccinated. Some people vaccinations are contraindicated, some suggest that they are counter to him, who, then in principle the view of vaccination. Many arrogantly think that they do not get sick, or think that the vaccine is a greater evil than the disease.
Do or not to get a flu shot, it’s a private matter. But we should not however forget how difficult runs flu, what serious complications it can cause, especially in children and the elderly. Such serious diseases as polio, diphtheria, tuberculosis, lead to disability with a 100 percent probability, and sometimes even death. It’s worth noting that the risk of disease in children these infections is very high, so we can not risk the health of children. After vaccination against these diseases your risk is virtually zero, is not dangerous even contact with the source of infection. Treatment of these diseases is very long, is quite expensive, and often ineffective. So better to be safe, is vaccination than to try to recover. According to foreign studies, direct costs, aimed at prevention in the form of vaccinations is ten times smaller than cure the disease. So is it worth all – still refuse to be vaccinated? Of course, it has to decide every man. But before we come to some decision, weigh all the pros and cons, and taking into account where the risk is, and where the benefits.
Risk, with vaccination, increases in situations described below:
- Not the right dosage of the vaccine;
- Incorrectly chosen technique of immunization;
- Breach of terms and sterilization equipment;
- Violated ways of storing and transporting vaccines;
- Violated sterile vaccine;
- Does not include contraindications.
Prevent the development of side effects, it is possible if you first take an antihistamine, but only after consulting with your doctor.
Vaccination is contraindicated in the following cases:
- Mmunodefitsitnye state;
- If there was already a reaction to previous administration of the vaccine in the form of increase in body temperature above 40 degrees C;
- Exacerbation of chronic illness or disease in the acute form;
- Immunosuppressive therapy.
In other situations, vaccination kako cause any harm can not.
If you do decided to abandon the vaccine, according to Article 5 of the Federal Law of 17 September 1998. № 157-F3 “On immunoprophylaxis of infectious diseases”, “citizens in the implementation of immunization have the right to refuse vaccinations.” In this case, according to the same article, “the implementation of immunization citizens must confirm in writing to the rejection of vaccination,” this written waiver should be given medical attention. Usually this is enough to any questions about vaccinations have arisen.