Lymphocytes – a type of white blood cells.
Norm: absolute content – 1200 – 3000 cells / ml.
That is 1 microliter should contain 1200 – 3000 cells.
Number of unit cells of transfer to other units. volume
1.2 – 3.0? September 10 l dm3
1.2 – 3.0? June 10 ml cm3
1.2 – 3.0? March 10 ml mm3
or 1200 – 3000 ml mm3
Increasing the number of lymphocytes – lymphocytosis, decrease – lymphocytopenia, lymphopenia.
These states can be absolute (analysis at the number of cells per unit volume) and relative (the analysis is expressed as a percentage, with the change in the number of lymphocytes due to an increase or decrease of serum other cells, such as neutrophils).
Reasons absolute lymphocytosis:
chronic lymphocytic leukemia (proliferative (Latin proles offspring + ferre = carry overgrowth tissue from tumors (reproductive) cells) disease of the blood system)
chronic radiation sickness
hyperthyroidism (increased production of thyroid hormones)
some infectious diseases (whooping cough, tuberculosis)
state after splenectomy (after removal of the spleen, such as after an injury)
Reasons absolute lymphopenia:
abnormal development of the lymphoid system (the cells in the bone marrow produces insufficient)
ionizing radiation (sometimes)
sometimes – proliferative diseases of the blood (leukemia, myeloma, lymphosarcoma, sarcoidosis, carcinoma)
autoimmune disease (systemic lupus erythematosus)
Cushing’s disease and receiving corticosteroids
some forms of tuberculosis (caseous pneumonia, miliary TB)
acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
The cheapest and at the same time, sufficiently accurate method to determine the number of T-cells is the method of rosette. It is based on the presence of the affinity between the receptor CD2 T cells and glycoproteins (specific antigens) sheep erythrocyte membrane. When mixed lymphocyte (blood serum study) with sheep red blood cells are formed figures, which are referred to outlets. Number of rosette cells (E-ROCK) to the number of T-lymphocytes, which are characterized by the presence on the surface of the CD2 antigen.
Norm: the relative content of 50 – 90%
absolute content of 800 – 2500 cells / mm or 0.8 – 2.5? 10 9 / L
The reasons for increasing the content of T-lymphocytes:
delayed-type hypersensitivity – HRT (a type of allergic reaction, carried by T-cells, an example of HRT is allergic dermatitis)
Reasons for the decline of T-lymphocytes:
bacterial chronic infections
some form of allergy
Subpopulation of lymphocytes (T-helper cells, T-suppressors) is most often defined by monoclonal antibodies.
Norm: the relative content of 30 – 50%
absolute content of 600 – 1600 cells / mm or 0.6 – 1.6? 10 9 / L
Determine the ratio of T-helper to T-suppressor can be teofillinovom test. The principle of the method is that in the presence of theophylline T-suppressors lose the ability to E-rosette formation. These cells are called teofillinchuvstvitelnyh (PM). The so-called teofillinrezistentnye cells (TR) in a large percentage of cases contain T helper. Indicator TP / PM standard of 2.5 – 3.5.
The reasons for increasing the content of T-helper:
autoimmune disease (systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, hemolytic anemia, autoimmune glomerulonephritis, etc.)
Reasons for the decline of T-helper cells: