Erythrocytes. Reference values
4.0 – 5.1 million red blood cells in 1 mm (4.0 – 5.1? 1012 / L) – for men
3.7 – 4.7 million red blood cells in 1 mm (3.7 – 4.7? 1012 / L) – for women.
Reducing the number of red blood cells.
The relative reduction in the number of red blood cells can be observed with a blood thinner in people with kidney disease (difficult removal fluid from the body), the introduction of a large amount of blood substitutes.
The absolute decrease in the number of red blood cells – is the main criterion of anemia.
Anemia are divided into the following types:
Scarce – anemia in which lacks any “spare parts” to build red blood cells (belkovodefitsitnye, vitaminodefitsitnye, iron). “Spare Parts” in sufficient quantities can come from food or incompletely absorbed from the intestine. Can be observed and their relative failure in pregnancy and adolescence, when the need for “building materials” exceed their intake into the body.
Hemorrhagic (due to acute and chronic blood loss) anemia. In essence, chronic hemorrhagic anemia too scarce: blood loss lost proteins, vitamins, and iron.
Hypo-and aplastic (congenital or acquired) anemia occur when death or malfunctioned stem cells (the ancestor of red blood cells) in the bone marrow. Acquired anemia can develop after exposure to radiation, congenital – the result of mutations.
Hemolytic (hereditary and acquired) anemia. Acquired anemia occur when the effects of various chemicals [their role can some drugs, antibodies, microbial toxins (for malaria)] or mechanical factors (such as red blood cells can ranitsya of artificial heart valve). Hereditary anemia – result from mutations erythrocytes of people with hereditary hemolytic anemia have a defect in the membranes (membranes) or abnormal hemoglobin.
Increase the number of red blood cells (polycythemia)
Absolute erythrocytosis may result enhance normal hematopoiesis. It can occur with chronic lung disease, heart disease, congenital hemoglobinopathies. People with abnormal hemoglobin compensatory increases red blood cells in 1 ml of blood because the hemoglobin can not carry oxygen in sufficient quantities. Not quality, so many. In chronic renal ischemia can also be observed erythrocytosis, as they produced in larger quantities than normal, erythropoietin, which stimulates the formation of blood.
Absolute erythrocytosis may be caused abnormal hematopoiesis – a tumor of the hematopoietic system – diseases Vakeza.
Relative polycythemia occurs when dehydration.
The morphology of red blood cells:
Changing the shape, size, color of red blood cells is the basis for the classification of anemia.
Reducing the diameter of red blood cells, microcytosis is observed in iron and hemolytic anemia.
Increasing the diameter of red blood cells, macrocytosis, observed in B12 and folievodefitsitnyh anemia (anemia vitaminodefitsitnye). When aplastic anemia may also occur macrocytosis.
Changing the shape of red blood cells (poikilocytosis – red cells have a different shape) may occur with iron deficiency anemia, some hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell anemia, thalassemia).
The best form for the red blood cell – a form of a biconcave disk. In this form of the erythrocyte is best to carry oxygen. The best size – 7 microns. If it is less, it will be worse the oxygen transfer, if more – red blood cells will be less to live. A substantial part of their lives, they will hold in the bone marrow, in addition, such large cells rapidly destroyed in the spleen.