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Deciphering immunograms – leukocytosis and leukopenia

Deciphering immunograms – leukocytosis and leukopenia

“Some of the indicators have puzzled me by its absence ….”
The reasons for this may be several:
laboratory was originally going to do these tests (the boxes appeared in the list, which inscribe the answer), but then because of various reasons (lack of demand, lack of reagents, etc.) changed her mind, and the form has not changed
This analysis is done by special arrangement and a separate board
This analysis is done for special reasons, since its inclusion in the overall immunogram – too expensive, and the deviations from the norm on this indicator occur in people with no serious disease is very rare (eg, antibodies to cardiolipin)
for cells that are normally found in very small quantities (eg, basophils), in the “contents” do not write 0, just leave a blank space
blood was “flawed” and could not come to an analysis was performed, but in this case indicates the reason (eg, “hemolysis”)
Just want to warn: “the rule” in immunology – a loose concept, ie each laboratory you will find your “norm” for this analysis, these “rules” are a little different.
Leukocytes
Norm – 3,5 – 8,8 x 109 / l
Elevated white blood cells – leukocytosis, lower – leukopenia.
Leukocytosis may be physiological and pathological, the first occurs in healthy people, the second – in some disease states.
Physiological causes of leukocytosis:
meals (with the number of white blood cells is less than 10 – 12? 109 / L)
physical work, taking hot and cold baths
pregnancy, childbirth, premenstrual
For this reason, the blood need to take on an empty stomach, before “going to the hospital,” do not do hard physical work. For pregnancy, labor and postpartum women set their own rules. The same applies to children.
The causes of pathological leukocytosis:
infectious diseases (pneumonia, sepsis, meningitis, pyelonephritis, etc.), infectious diseases, mainly affecting the immune system cells (infectious mononucleosis and infectious lymphocytosis), various inflammatory diseases caused by microorganisms (peritonitis, abscess, etc.)
Exceptions:
some infectious diseases that occur with leukopenia (typhoid, malaria, brucellosis, measles, rubella, influenza, viral hepatitis in the acute phase)
If the acute phase of infection is absent leukocytosis – is an unfavorable sign, indicating the weak reactivity (resistance) of the body
nemikrobnoy inflammatory etiology (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, etc.)
heart attacks various organs (myocardium, lungs, etc.) – they are based on aseptic (-bacterial) inflammation
extensive burns
large blood loss
malignant diseases (oncology)
Exceptions:
metastases in the bone marrow can disrupt the blood and cause leukopenia
proliferative (Latin proles offspring + ferre = carry overgrowth tissue from tumors (reproductive) cells), blood disease (leukemia, etc.), but it only applies to the leukemic (50 – 80 ? 109 / L, white blood cells) and subleykemicheskoy (50 – 80 ? 109 / L, white blood cells) forms.
Exceptions:
in leukopenic (white blood cell count in the blood below normal) and aleukemic (white blood cell count in the blood is below normal, the absence of blasts (immature) cells) forms no leukocytosis
uremia, diabetic coma
splenectomy (removal of the spleen) – leukocytosis 15 – 20? 109 / L, with an increase in the number of neutrophils and 90%
Causes of Leukopenia:
exposure to certain chemicals (such as benzene)
certain medications (amidopirina, phenylbutazone, reopirin, sulfonamides, cytostatics, etc.)
effects of ionizing radiation (X-rays, radiation)
hemodyscrasia [his failure - bone marrow hypoplasia (from Lat. hypo - under, below, is less than + g. plasis - education = hypoplasia any tissue)].
diseases of the blood (leukemia) – aleukemic leukopenic and forms, as well as other forms of cytotoxic drugs in overdose
metastasis to the bone marrow
spleen disease in which there is increased destruction of blood cells in the body (eg, liver cirrhosis, flowing with splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), Hodgkin
some endocrine disorders (acromegaly, Cushing’s disease and syndrome)
some infectious diseases that occur with lymphocytopenia (typhoid, malaria, brucellosis, measles, rubella, influenza, viral hepatitis in the acute phase).