Deciphering immunograms – immune system cells and Ig
Immunogram – a blood test, which investigated the components of the immune system. It takes into account the number of cells (white blood cells, macrophages, or phagocytes), their percentage and functional activity, as well as the “stuff” that these cells produce – immunoglobulins (Ig) class A, M, G, E, components of the complement system. Sometimes in the immunological define “pathological antibodies” – antinuclear factor, rheumatoid factor, antibodies to phospholipids, and others.
Cells of the immune system.
Leukocytes. Their purpose – to recognize foreign substances and micro-organisms, and to deal with them, and store information about them – for the future.
The following types of white blood cells …
lymphocytes (T cells: T-helper cells, T-suppressor, B cells, null cells)
Natural killer (NK)
neutrophils (stab and segmented)
Macrophages (phagocytes) “eat” live and dead bacteria, antigen-antibody complexes (formed in the fight against viruses, bacteria and their toxins), dead cells of the organism. Impossible without macrophage activity of lymphocytes: they “help” the last to recognize antigens, secrete neurotransmitters (substances that stimulate or inhibit the activity of other cells of the immune system). The precursors of macrophages, monocytes, the largest cells circulating in the blood.
B cells – a kind of lymphocyte that produces antibodies (immunoglobulins). The name they have received from the Latin word “bursa” – bag, bags under the name Fabricius – a body which differentiate (mature) B cells in birds. In humans, this process occurs in the bone marrow.
T-cells – a kind of lymphocyte that control the B-lymphocytes (ie, antibody production). They got the name from the word “thymus” – the body in which ripen.
Helper T-cells – a kind of T-lymphocytes that contribute to (help) the synthesis of antibodies (to help – English. – “Help”).
T-suppressor – a kind of T-lymphocytes that prevent (inhibit) the synthesis of antibodies (to supress – English. – “To suppress, repress, restrain, prohibit”).
Natural killer cells – limfotsitopodobnye cells lacking signs of T-and B-lymphocytes, are capable of destroying tumor cells and cells infected with viruses
“Often I see immunological cell CD, their number. What is this cell?”
A few words on the CD
Cluster of differentiation (CD) – an antigen located on the surface of cells, a marker (label) in which some cells are different. Is what labels are on the cell surface, depending on its type (T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte, etc.) and its maturity (the ability to carry out its functions.)
Tags are numbered by one according to when they were opened: the earlier opened the cluster, the less his room.
Clusters of differentiation in the laboratory identified by monoclonal antibodies.
Clone – a collection of cells, appeared at a single cell. Clone of cells identical to 100%, that is, they look at each other as identical twins. Identical cells synthesize the same antibody. These antibodies are called monoclonal. Most often they are used in the diagnosis and immunological studies.
The most common clusters
CD2 – a cluster of T cells, NK-cells
CD3 – a cluster of T-lymphocytes
CD4 – cluster of T-helper cells and monocytes (the cells that matured, become macrophages)
CD8 – T-suppressor
CD16 – NK-cells (natural killer cells)
CD72 – B cells
Other white blood cells.
Neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils – a kind of white blood cells. Its name they got for the ability to perceive the different pigments. Eosinophils are seen in most acidic dyes (eosin, Congo red) and blood smears are pink-orange color; basophils – Alkaline (hematoxylin, methylene blue), so smears appear blue-violet; neutrophils – both are so painted gray purple, neutral color.
Nuclei of mature segmented neutrophils – have a waist (so called segmented nuclei), nuclei of immature cells have a curved rod, so they called the stab.
One of the names of neutrophils – “microbivore” refers to their ability to phagocytose bacteria, but in smaller numbers than do macrophages.
Eosinophils are involved in the destruction of parasites (secrete special enzymes that have a damaging effect on them), in allergic reactions (release substances that destroy histamine, prevents the enzyme from the granules of mast cells).
In case of allergic reactions in the blood is much IgE, it “communicates” with the membrane of basophils, contributing to their degranulation (ie out of the cell histamine). What does it lead, know all the allergies!
IgM – this type of antibody appears first of all in contact with the antigen (microbe), increased their titer (content) in the blood indicates an acute inflammatory process.
IgG – the antibody of this class appear some time after exposure to the antigen. They are involved in the fight against microbes – are connected to the antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells. Then they were joined by other plasma proteins (called complement), and bacterial cells are lysed (broken its shell). In addition, IgG is involved in the occurrence of some allergic reactions.
IgA – prevent the penetration of viruses into the body through the mucous membranes, although the bacteria antibodies of this class can not protect us, with their toxins they cope.
IgE – an antibody of this class interact with receptors on mast cells and basophils. As a result, release histamine and other mediators of allergy. Develops its own allergic reaction.
This is interesting …
The real thing that happened in the classroom for Clinical Immunology at the Medical Institute. The teacher asks, “What is’ B-di” (CD)? ” Students are nothing but “CD” can not remember … A CD – it’s a cluster of differentiation!
Similar abbreviations: SLE and the CEC. SLE – a freely convertible currency, and systemic lupus erythematosus, and CEC – CEC and circulating immune complexes.