A vaccine against cervical cancer
By Stanislav Burlakov | Published Monday, July 23, 2012
Human papillomavirus (HPV) – not only is the cause of warts, it still can cause cervical cancer. For this discovery, a German scientist Harald zur Hausen received the 2008 Nobel Prize.
According to statistics today are infected with human papilloma virus (various sources) of 30 to 60% of women. Not surprisingly, the prevalence of cervical cancer among female cancer takes the third place. And every year the disease “younger”: if 10-15 years ago, she met, mainly after 50, but now the number of patients from 18 to 45 years has increased by several times.
HPV is not so bad …
In a woman’s body (as well as, and in the male) human papilloma virus often gets sexually. Unfortunately, the infection condom does not protect 100%. Microtrauma to the skin and mucous membranes, which are the product number 2 does not close, can contribute to infection. Sometimes the infection can “receive” at birth – when the baby passes through the genital tract of a patient mother.
Important! Drug that would completely cured of the human papillomavirus, currently does not exist.
After papilloma virus penetrated into the body, there are three scenarios:
asymptomatic infection (the virus does not manifest itself);
there are warts (growths on the skin or mucous membrane, resembling cauliflower);
there are precancerous and cancer (in women – cervical cancer, at least – and vulvar and vaginal cancers in men (very rare) – cancer of the penis).
Why is the infection is different? The fact that the notorious HPV – is not one single virus, and about a hundred different. There are more “evil”, is less. If you “hit” of HPV, such as 6 or 11 type, the warts appear on the skin, and if 16 or 18 types, can develop cancer. The viruses that cause cancer are called vysokoonkogennye.
Important! In 70% of cases of cervical cancer is caused by human papilloma viruses 16 and 18 types. In more rare cases, the disease can also result in 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68 types.
We can say that the easiest way to “catch” a dangerous HPV – not to have sex with untested partner. Fortunately, not long ago, there was a more reliable means of protection – vysokoonkogennyh vaccination against HPV types, which people have called “cancer vaccine.”
Vaccination against HPV
Now in Russia used two vaccines against HPV – Gardasil and Cervarix (both vaccines imported). Live or killed viruses are not available. They contain virus-like particles, which artificially simulate the “empty” shell of the virus and contribute to the formation of immunity.
Important! Vaccination does not treat patients with HPV, but only to protect the health of the infection.
And Gardasil and Cervarix protect against the most dangerous types of HPV – 16 and 18. While Gardasil also protects against virus types 6 and 11 (causing warts) and Cervarix can build immunity to the types of HPV that the vaccine is not – 33 and 45 (the so-called cross-immunity).
As vaccination against HPV?
An injection into the muscle do the shoulder. Gardasil is administered by the scheme 0-2-6 months: one shot, two months later – the second, but after six months (that is, four months after the second injection) – the third. Cervarix is ??administered by the scheme 0-1-6 months: make the second shot a month after the first, and the third – six months after the first (five after the second).
When vaccinated against HPV?
Vaccinated against HPV is recommended to girls 9 to 17 years and young women aged 18 to 26 years. It is best to be vaccinated before sexual debut (when she is not infected 100%), but a little later, too, can make a shot.
The question of whether it makes sense to be vaccinated against HPV in women older than 26 years, is still open.
Fee or free?
In Russia, a vaccination against HPV immunization schedule is not included, but in some areas are running free vaccination program for girls 12-13 years old from the federal budget. Free to be vaccinated against HPV can in some medical institutions in Moscow and the Moscow region, as well as in Samara, Tver, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District and Yakutia. To find out whether your local free vaccines and where to get vaccinated, you should consult a gynecologist at the clinic.
Get vaccinated money can vaccination centers or in private clinics. Course of vaccination in Moscow is from 15-17 to 25-27 thousand. Price depends on the type of vaccine (Gardasil vaccine is more expensive than Cervarix) and the class of the medical institution.
How reliable is the HPV vaccine?
After the graft body is almost 100% protected from HPV (of course, this applies only to the types of the virus from which the vaccine protects). By the way, if you have found one of the HPV types, the vaccine can still do that for other types of the virus from which the vaccine protects, formed immunity.
At present, research continues on how many years are immune after vaccination, and whether vaccination repeat. It was assumed that once every five years on the HPV vaccine should be done again. Now extend deadlines may be re-vaccination is not necessary.
Side effects of vaccination
After vaccination against HPV side effects are rare. Injection site may become red, swollen and sore appears. After a few days, these phenomena will disappear.
If there was an allergy after vaccination, the vaccination should be stopped.